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The Berliner Urstromtal an ice age glacial valley , between the low Barnim Plateau to the north and the Teltow plateau to the south, was formed by meltwater flowing from ice sheets at the end of the last Weichselian glaciation.
The Spree follows this valley now. In Spandau, a borough in the west of Berlin, the Spree empties into the river Havel , which flows from north to south through western Berlin.
Substantial parts of present-day Berlin extend onto the low plateaus on both sides of the Spree Valley. Large parts of the boroughs Reinickendorf and Pankow lie on the Barnim Plateau, while most of the boroughs of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf , Steglitz-Zehlendorf , Tempelhof-Schöneberg , and Neukölln lie on the Teltow Plateau.
The borough of Spandau lies partly within the Berlin Glacial Valley and partly on the Nauen Plain, which stretches to the west of Berlin.
Since , the Arkenberge hills in Pankow at metres feet elevation, have been the highest point in Berlin. Through the disposal of construction debris they surpassed Teufelsberg Due to its transitional climate zones, frosts are common in winter and there are larger temperature differences between seasons than typical for many oceanic climates.
Furthermore, Berlin is classified as a temperate continental climate Dc under the Trewartha climate scheme , as well as the suburbs of New York , although the Köppen system puts them in different types.
Spring and autumn are generally chilly to mild. Berlin's built-up area creates a microclimate, with heat stored by the city's buildings and pavement.
Snowfall mainly occurs from December through March. Berlin's history has left the city with a polycentric organization and a highly eclectic array of architecture and buildings.
The city's appearance today has been predominantly shaped by the key role it played in Germany's history during the 20th century.
Berlin was devastated by air raids , fires and street battles during the Second World War, and many of the buildings that had survived in both East and West, were demolished during the post-war period.
Much of this demolition was initiated by municipal architecture programs to build new business or residential districts and the main arteries.
A number of new buildings have been inspired by their historical predecessors or the general classical style of Berlin, such as Hotel Adlon.
Clusters of towers rise at various locations: Potsdamer Platz , the City West , and Alexanderplatz , the latter two delineating the former centers of East and West Berlin, with the first representing a new Berlin of the 21st century, risen from the wastes of no-man's land of the Berlin Wall.
Berlin has three of the top 40 tallest buildings in Germany. Built in , it is visible throughout most of the central districts of Berlin. Starting here the Karl-Marx-Allee heads east, an avenue lined by monumental residential buildings, designed in the Socialist Classicism style.
Adjacent to this area is the Rotes Rathaus City Hall , with its distinctive red-brick architecture. In front of it is the Neptunbrunnen , a fountain featuring a mythological group of Tritons , personifications of the four main Prussian rivers and Neptune on top of it.
The Brandenburg Gate is an iconic landmark of Berlin and Germany; it stands as a symbol of eventful European history and of unity and peace.
The Reichstag building is the traditional seat of the German Parliament. It was remodelled by British architect Norman Foster in the s and features a glass dome over the session area, which allows free public access to the parliamentary proceedings and magnificent views of the city.
The East Side Gallery is an open-air exhibition of art painted directly on the last existing portions of the Berlin Wall.
It is the largest remaining evidence of the city's historical division. The Gendarmenmarkt is a neoclassical square in Berlin, the name of which derives from the headquarters of the famous Gens d'armes regiment located here in the 18th century.
It is bordered by two similarly designed cathedrals, the Französischer Dom with its observation platform and the Deutscher Dom. The Konzerthaus Concert Hall , home of the Berlin Symphony Orchestra, stands between the two cathedrals.
The Museum Island in the River Spree houses five museums built from to and is a UNESCO World Heritage site. Restoration and construction of a main entrance to all museums, as well as reconstruction of the Stadtschloss continues.
Peter's Basilica in Rome. A large crypt houses the remains of some of the earlier Prussian royal family. Hedwig's Cathedral is Berlin's Roman Catholic cathedral.
Unter den Linden is a tree-lined east—west avenue from the Brandenburg Gate to the site of the former Berliner Stadtschloss, and was once Berlin's premier promenade.
Many Classical buildings line the street and part of Humboldt University is there. It combines 20th-century traditions with the modern architecture of today's Berlin.
Potsdamer Platz is an entire quarter built from scratch after the Wall came down. The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe , a Holocaust memorial, is to the north.
The area around Hackescher Markt is home to fashionable culture, with countless clothing outlets, clubs, bars, and galleries.
This includes the Hackesche Höfe , a conglomeration of buildings around several courtyards, reconstructed around The nearby New Synagogue is the center of Jewish culture.
Juni , connecting the Brandenburg Gate and Ernst-Reuter-Platz, serves as the central east—west axis. Its name commemorates the uprisings in East Berlin of 17 June This monument, built to commemorate Prussia's victories, was relocated in —39 from its previous position in front of the Reichstag.
The Kurfürstendamm is home to some of Berlin's luxurious stores with the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church at its eastern end on Breitscheidplatz.
The church was destroyed in the Second World War and left in ruins. The Rathaus Schöneberg , where John F. Kennedy made his famous " Ich bin ein Berliner!
West of the center, Bellevue Palace is the residence of the German President. Charlottenburg Palace , which was burnt out in the Second World War, is the largest historical palace in Berlin.
The Oberbaumbrücke over the Spree river is Berlin's most iconic bridge, connecting the now-combined boroughs of Friedrichshain and Kreuzberg.
It carries vehicles, pedestrians, and the U1 Berlin U-Bahn line. The bridge was completed in a brick gothic style in , replacing the former wooden bridge, with an upper deck for the U-Bahn.
The center portion was demolished in to stop the Red Army from crossing. After the war, the repaired bridge served as a checkpoint and border crossing between the Soviet and American sectors, and later between East and West Berlin.
In the mids it was closed to vehicles, and after the construction of the Berlin Wall in , pedestrian traffic was heavily restricted.
Following German reunification, the center portion was reconstructed with a steel frame, and U-Bahn service resumed in At the end of , the city-state of Berlin had 3.
Berlin is the most populous city proper in the EU. The urban area of Berlin had about 4. The number of deaths was 32, Almost 2. More than , families with children under the age of 18 lived in Berlin.
In the German capital registered a migration surplus of approximately 40, people. National and international migration into the city has a long history.
In , after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in France, the city responded with the Edict of Potsdam , which guaranteed religious freedom and tax-free status to French Huguenot refugees for ten years.
The Greater Berlin Act in incorporated many suburbs and surrounding cities of Berlin. It formed most of the territory that comprises modern Berlin and increased the population from 1.
Active immigration and asylum politics in West Berlin triggered waves of immigration in the s and s. Berlin is home to at least , Turkish and Turkish German residents,  making it the largest Turkish community outside of Turkey.
In the s the Aussiedlergesetze enabled immigration to Germany of some residents from the former Soviet Union.
Today ethnic Germans from countries of the former Soviet Union make up the largest portion of the Russian-speaking community. In December , there were , registered residents of foreign nationality and another , German citizens with a "migration background" Migrationshintergrund, MH ,  meaning they or one of their parents immigrated to Germany after Foreign residents of Berlin originate from about different countries.
There are more than 20 non-indigenous communities with a population of at least 10, people, including Turkish , Polish, Russian, Lebanese, Palestinian, Serbian, Italian, Bosnian, Vietnamese , American, Romanian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Chinese, Austrian, Ukrainian, French, British, Spanish, Israeli, Thai, Iranian, Egyptian and Syrian communities.
German is the official and predominant spoken language in Berlin. It is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
German is one of 24 languages of the European Union,  and one of the three working languages of the European Commission. Berlinerisch or Berlinisch is not a dialect linguistically, but has features of Lausitzisch-neumärkisch dialects.
It is spoken in Berlin and the surrounding metropolitan area. It originates from a Brandenburgish variant. The dialect is now seen more as a sociolect , largely through increased immigration and trends among the educated population to speak standard German in everyday life.
The most-commonly-spoken foreign languages in Berlin are Turkish, Polish, English, Arabic, Italian, Bulgarian, Russian, Romanian, Kurdish, Serbo-Croatian, French, Spanish and Vietnamese.
Turkish, Arabic, Kurdish and Serbo-Croatian are heard more often in the western part, due to the large Middle Eastern and former-Yugoslavian communities.
Polish, English, Russian, and Vietnamese have more native speakers in East Berlin. According to the census, approximately 37 percent of the population reported being members of a legally-recognized church or religious organization.
The rest either did not belong to such an organization, or there was no information available about them. The largest religious denomination recorded in was the Protestant regional church body —the Evangelical Church of Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia EKBO —a United church.
EKBO is a member of the Evangelical Church in Germany EKD and Union Evangelischer Kirchen UEK. According to the EKBO, their membership accounted for It does not keep records of members of other religious organizations which may collect their own church tax, in this way.
In , approximately , Muslims were reported by the Office of Statistics to be members of Mosques and Islamic religious organizations in Berlin,  while in , the newspaper Der Tagesspiegel estimated that about , Muslims observed Ramadan in Berlin.
About 0. Of the estimated population of 30,—45, Jewish residents,  approximately 12, are registered members of religious organizations.
Berlin is the seat of the Roman Catholic archbishop of Berlin and EKBO 's elected chairperson is titled the bishop of EKBO.
Furthermore, Berlin is the seat of many Orthodox cathedrals, such as the Cathedral of St. Boris the Baptist, one of the two seats of the Bulgarian Orthodox Diocese of Western and Central Europe, and the Resurrection of Christ Cathedral of the Diocese of Berlin Patriarchate of Moscow.
The faithful of the different religions and denominations maintain many places of worship in Berlin. The Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church has eight parishes of different sizes in Berlin.
Berlin has more than 80 mosques,  ten synagogues,  and two Buddhist temples. Since reunification on 3 October , Berlin has been one of the three city states in Germany among the present 16 states of Germany.
The House of Representatives Abgeordnetenhaus functions as the city and state parliament, which has seats. Berlin's executive body is the Senate of Berlin Senat von Berlin.
The Senate consists of the Governing Mayor Regierender Bürgermeister and up to ten senators holding ministerial positions, two of them holding the title of "Mayor" Bürgermeister as deputy to the Governing Mayor.
The Social Democratic Party SPD and The Left Die Linke took control of the city government after the state election and won another term in the state election.
The Governing Mayor is simultaneously Lord Mayor of the City of Berlin Oberbürgermeister der Stadt and Minister President of the Federal State of Berlin Ministerpräsident des Bundeslandes.
The office of the Governing Mayor is in the Rotes Rathaus Red City Hall. Since this office has been held by Michael Müller of the Social Democrats.
Berlin is subdivided into 12 boroughs or districts Bezirke. Each borough has a number of subdistricts or neighborhoods Ortsteile , which have roots in much older municipalities that predate the formation of Greater Berlin on 1 October These subdistricts became urbanized and incorporated into the city later on.
Many residents strongly identify with their neighbourhoods, colloquially called Kiez. At present, Berlin consists of 96 subdistricts, which are commonly made up of several smaller residential areas or quarters.
Each borough is governed by a borough council Bezirksamt consisting of five councilors Bezirksstadträte including the borough's mayor Bezirksbürgermeister.
The council is elected by the borough assembly Bezirksverordnetenversammlung. However, the individual boroughs are not independent municipalities, but subordinate to the Senate of Berlin.
The borough's mayors make up the council of mayors Rat der Bürgermeister , which is led by the city's Governing Mayor and advises the Senate. The neighborhoods have no local government bodies.
Berlin maintains official partnerships with 17 cities. East Berlin's partnerships were canceled at the time of German reunification but later partially reestablished.
West Berlin's partnerships had previously been restricted to the borough level. During the Cold War era, the partnerships had reflected the different power blocs, with West Berlin partnering with capitals in the Western World, and East Berlin mostly partnering with cities from the Warsaw Pact and its allies.
Berlin participates in international city associations such as the Union of the Capitals of the European Union, Eurocities, Network of European Cities of Culture, Metropolis, Summit Conference of the World's Major Cities, and Conference of the World's Capital Cities.
Berlin's official sister cities are: . Apart from sister cities, there are also several city and district partnerships that Berlin districts have established.
For example, the district of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg has a partnership with the Israeli city of Kiryat Yam. Berlin is the capital of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The President of Germany , whose functions are mainly ceremonial under the German constitution , has their official residence in Bellevue Palace. Facing the Chancellery is the Bundestag , the German Parliament, housed in the renovated Reichstag building since the government's relocation to Berlin in The Bundesrat "federal council", performing the function of an upper house is the representation of the federal states Bundesländer of Germany and has its seat at the former Prussian House of Lords.
The Federal Chancellery building , seat of the Chancellor of Germany. The Reichstag , seat of the Bundestag.
Schloss Bellevue , seat of the President of Germany. Prussian House of Lords , the seat of the Bundesrat of Germany.
The relocation of the federal government and Bundestag to Berlin was mostly completed in , however some ministries as well as some minor departments stayed in the federal city Bonn , the former capital of West Germany.
Discussions about moving the remaining ministries and departments to Berlin continue. Berlin hosts in total foreign embassies  as well as the headquarters of many think tanks, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups, and professional associations.
Due to the influence and international partnerships of the Federal Republic of Germany, the capital city has become a significant centre of German and European affairs.
Frequent official visits, and diplomatic consultations among governmental representatives and national leaders are common in contemporary Berlin.
In , the total labour force in Berlin was 1. The unemployment rate reached a year low in November and stood at Around , jobs were added in this period.
Important economic sectors in Berlin include life sciences, transportation, information and communication technologies, media and music, advertising and design, biotechnology, environmental services, construction, e-commerce, retail, hotel business, and medical engineering.
Research and development have economic significance for the city. Many German and international companies have business or service centers in the city.
For several years Berlin has been recognized as a major center of business founders. Siemens , a Global and DAX -listed company is partly headquartered in Berlin.
Other DAX-listed companies headquartered in Berlin are the property company Deutsche Wohnen and the online food delivery service Delivery Hero.
The national railway operator Deutsche Bahn ,  Europe's largest digital publisher  Axel Springer as well as the MDAX -listed firms Zalando and HelloFresh and also have their main headquarters in the city.
Among the largest international corporations who have their German or European headquarters in Berlin are Bombardier Transportation , Gazprom Germania , Coca-Cola , Pfizer , Sony and Total.
As of , the three largest banks headquartered in the capital were Deutsche Kreditbank , Landesbank Berlin and Berlin Hyp.
Daimler manufactures cars, and BMW builds motorcycles in Berlin. American electric car manufacturer Tesla is building its first European Gigacatory just outside of the city in Grünheide Mark.
The Pharmaceuticals division of Bayer  and Berlin Chemie are major pharmaceutical companies in the city. Berlin had hotels with , beds in Some of the most visited places in Berlin include: Potsdamer Platz , Brandenburger Tor , the Berlin wall , Alexanderplatz , Museumsinsel , Fernsehturm , the East-Side Gallery , Schloss-Charlottenburg , Zoologischer Garten , Siegessäule , Gedenkstätte Berliner Mauer , Mauerpark , Botanical Garden , Französischer Dom , Deutscher Dom and Holocaust-Mahnmal.
The largest visitor groups are from Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain and the United States. According to figures from the International Congress and Convention Association in Berlin became the leading organizer of conferences in the world hosting international meetings.
The Messe Berlin also known as Berlin ExpoCenter City is the main convention organizing company in the city. Its main exhibition area covers more than , square metres 1,, square feet.
Several large-scale trade fairs like the consumer electronics trade fair IFA , the ILA Berlin Air Show , the Berlin Fashion Week including the Premium Berlin and the Panorama Berlin ,  the Green Week , the Fruit Logistica , the transport fair InnoTrans , the tourism fair ITB and the adult entertainment and erotic fair Venus are held annually in the city, attracting a significant number of business visitors.
The creative arts and entertainment business is an important part of Berlin's economy. In , around 30, creative companies operated in the Berlin-Brandenburg metropolitan region, predominantly SMEs.
Generating a revenue of Berlin is an important centre in the European and German film industry. The city is also home of the German Film Academy Deutsche Filmakademie , founded in , and the European Film Academy , founded in In addition around 20 news agencies, more than 90 regional daily newspapers and their websites, as well as the Berlin offices of more than 22 national publications such as Der Spiegel , and Die Zeit re-enforce the capital's position as Germany's epicenter for influential debate.
Therefore, many international journalists, bloggers and writers live and work in the city. Berlin is the central location to several international and regional television and radio stations.
German international public broadcaster Deutsche Welle has its TV production unit in Berlin, and most national German broadcasters have a studio in the city including ZDF and RTL.
Berlin has Germany's largest number of daily newspapers, with numerous local broadsheets Berliner Morgenpost , Berliner Zeitung , Der Tagesspiegel , and three major tabloids , as well as national dailies of varying sizes, each with a different political affiliation, such as Die Welt , Neues Deutschland , and Die Tageszeitung.
The Exberliner , a monthly magazine, is Berlin's English-language periodical and La Gazette de Berlin a French-language newspaper. Berlin is also the headquarter of major German-language publishing houses like Walter de Gruyter , Springer , the Ullstein Verlagsgruppe publishing group , Suhrkamp and Cornelsen are all based in Berlin.
Each of which publish books, periodicals, and multimedia products. According to Mercer , Berlin ranked number 13 in the Quality of living city ranking in According to Monocle , Berlin occupies the position of the 6th-most-livable city in the world.
In , Berlin has the best future prospects of all cities in Germany, according to HWWI and Berenberg Bank.
It is also the best ranked region in former East Germany after Jena , Dresden and Potsdam. Berlin's transport infrastructure is highly complex, providing a diverse range of urban mobility.
In , around 7, mostly beige colored taxicabs were in service. Since , a number of app based e-car and e-scooter sharing services have evolved.
Long-distance rail lines connect Berlin with all of the major cities of Germany and with many cities in neighboring European countries.
Regional rail lines of the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg provide access to the surrounding regions of Brandenburg and to the Baltic Sea.
The Berlin Hauptbahnhof is the largest grade-separated railway station in Europe. It also runs an airport express rail service, as well as trains to several international destinations like Vienna , Prague , Zürich , Warsaw , Budapest and Amsterdam.
Similarly to other German cities, there is an increasing quantity of intercity bus services. The city has more than 10 stations  that run buses to destinations throughout Germany and Europe, being Zentraler Omnibusbahnhof Berlin the biggest station.
The Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe BVG and the Deutsche Bahn DB manage several extensive urban public transport systems. Public transportation in Berlin has a long and complicated history because of the 20 th century division of the city, where movement between the two halves was not served.
Since , the transport network has been developed extensively; however, it still contains early 20 th century traits, such as the U1. Berlin is served by one commercial international airport: Berlin Brandenburg Airport BER , located just outside Berlin's south-eastern border, in the state of Brandenburg.
It began construction in , with the intention of replacing Tegel Airport TXL and Schönefeld Airport SXF as the single commercial airport of Berlin.
Before the opening of the BER in Brandenburg, Berlin was served by Tegel Airport and Schönefeld Airport. Tegel Airport was within the city limits, and Schönefeld Airport was located at the same site as the BER.
Stephan von Dassel tritt für die Grünen erneut als Bürgermeister-Kandidat für Berlin-Mitte an. Der Amtsinhaber setzte sich am Samstag in einer Kampfabstimmung knapp mit 50,6 Prozent der Stimmen gegen seinen Herausforderer Tilo Siewer durch, wie der Kreisverband Mitte der Grünen per Twitter mitteilte.
Bei regnerischem Wetter seien nur der 1. Siewer, der die Fraktion der Grünen in Mitte anführt, hatte von Dassel vor allem bei der Verkehrswende attackiert und angekündigt, als Bürgermeister "keine Schlagzeilen" produzieren zu wollen.
Von Dassel ist innerhalb der Partei nicht unumstritten, unter anderem wegen seiner harten Linie gegen Obdachlose aus Osteuropa.
Esto incluye el Hackesche Höfe , un conglomerado de edificios alrededor de varios patios, reconstruido alrededor de Juni , que conecta la Puerta de Brandenburgo y Ernst-Reuter-Platz, sirve como eje central este-oeste.
El Rathaus Schöneberg , donde John F. Kennedy hizo su famoso " Ich bin ein Berliner! Se contabilizaron casi 2,0 millones de hogares en la ciudad.
El 54 por ciento de ellos eran hogares unipersonales. Una parte de los inmigrantes africanos se ha asentado en Afrikanisches Viertel.
Tiene su origen en una variante de Brandeburgo. En , alrededor de La oficina del alcalde gobernante se encuentra en el Rotes Rathaus Ayuntamiento Rojo.
Muchos residentes se identifican fuertemente con sus vecindarios, coloquialmente llamados Kiez. El consejo es elegido por la asamblea municipal Bezirksverordnetenversammlung.
El Reichstag , sede del Bundestag. Schloss Bellevue , sede del presidente de Alemania. Se agregaron alrededor de Muchas empresas alemanas e internacionales tienen centros comerciales o de servicios en la ciudad.
Con unos ingresos de Por lo tanto, muchos periodistas, blogueros y escritores internacionales viven y trabajan en la ciudad.
En , se registraron 1. En , estaban en servicio alrededor de 7. Al igual que en otras ciudades alemanas, hay una cantidad creciente de servicios de autobuses interurbanos.
Ambos aeropuertos manejaron juntos 29,5 millones de pasajeros en Este sistema transmite audio digital comprimido , video digital y otros datos en un flujo de transporte MPEG.
Deutsche Bahn tiene previsto introducir servicios Wi-Fi en trenes regionales y de larga distancia en Ich freue mich, dass Sie sich für meine und die Arbeit der Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeiter im Geschäftsbereich des Bezirksbürgermeisters interessieren.
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