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Jyväskylä Finland

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Food Unknown: Episode 2: Finland: What is Nordic cuisine?? FULL EPISODE

Jyväskylä Finland
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JyvГ¤skylГ¤ Finland Finland is located in Northern Europe in the Baltic Sea region. Finland’s neighbouring countries are Russia (east), Norway (north), Sweden (west) and Estonia (south). The surface area of Finland is , km², which includes the land and inland water areas. Economy. The currency of Finland . Finland is highly integrated in the global economy, and international trade is a third of GDP. The European Union makes 60 percent of the total trade. The largest trade flows are with Germany, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the United States, Netherlands and China. Trade policy is managed by the European Union, where Finland has traditionally been among the free trade supporters, except. Arbetstagare, företagare, studerande, återflyttare, flykting, asylsökande eller en familjemedlem till en person bosatt i Finland hittar information speciellt om sin egen situation på dessa sidor i InfoFinland. Via dessa sidor hittar du snabbt den information som du behöver i kortfattade form. ikea jyvГ¤skylГ¤ jyvГ¤skylГ¤, ikea raitamatto, ikea ilmainen bussi vantaa markus chios-info.com ikea huonekalut jyvГ¤skylГ¤, ikea raisio aukioloajat sunnuntai, ikea rahoitus suomi. ikea lack tv taso design, ikea ikea sivupГ¶ytГ¤ valkoinen finnish. casino jyvГ¤skylГ¤, bond casino – norskt casino: gzuz online casino. finnish online casino ceo fired, casino barriere lille recrutement – casino fichas: casino​. Eine in lГ¤ndlichen Gebieten in Finnland durchgefГјhrte Studie, warum verschriebene JyvГ¤skylГ¤, Finland, Institute for Educational Research, University of.

In the beginning of the s, Finland's GDP per capita reached the level of Japan and the UK. Finland's economic development shared many aspects with export-led Asian countries.

Significant bilateral trade was conducted with the Soviet Union , but this did not grow into a dependence. Like other Nordic countries, Finland has liberalized its system of economic regulation since late s.

Financial and product market regulations were modified. Some state enterprises were privatized and some tax rates were altered.

This was caused by a combination of economic overheating largely due to a change in the banking laws in which made credit much more accessible , depressed markets with key trading partners particularly the Swedish and Soviet markets as well as local markets, slow growth with other trading partners, and the disappearance of the Soviet bilateral trade.

The crisis was amplified by trade unions' initial opposition to any reforms. A total of over 10 billion euros were used to bail out failing banks, which led to banking sector consolidation.

Finland joined the European Union in The central bank was given an inflation-targeting mandate until Finland joined the euro zone.

Finland was one of the 11 countries joining the third phase of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union , adopting the euro as the country's currency, on 1 January The national currency markka FIM was withdrawn from circulation and replaced by the euro EUR at the beginning of The following table shows the main economic indicators in — Finland's climate and soils make growing crops a particular challenge.

In response to the climate, farmers have relied on quick-ripening and frost-resistant varieties of crops.

Most farmland had originally been either forest or swamp, and the soil had usually required treatment with lime and years of cultivation to neutralise excess acid and to develop fertility.

Irrigation was generally not necessary, but drainage systems were often needed to remove excess water.

Until the late nineteenth century, Finland's isolation required that most farmers concentrate on producing grains to meet the country's basic food needs.

In the fall, farmers planted rye; in the spring, southern and central farmers started oats, while northern farmers seeded barley.

Farms also grew small quantities of potatoes, other root crops, and legumes. Nevertheless, the total area under cultivation was still small.

Cattle grazed in the summer and consumed hay in the winter. Essentially self-sufficient, Finland engaged in very limited agricultural trade. This traditional, almost autarkic, production pattern shifted sharply during the late nineteenth century, when inexpensive imported grain from Russia and the United States competed effectively with local grain.

At the same time, rising domestic and foreign demand for dairy products and the availability of low-cost imported cattle feed made dairy and meat production much more profitable.

These changes in market conditions induced Finland's farmers to switch from growing staple grains to producing meat and dairy products, setting a pattern that persisted into the late s.

In response to the agricultural depression of the s, the government encouraged domestic production by imposing tariffs on agricultural imports.

This policy enjoyed some success: the total area under cultivation increased, and farm incomes fell less sharply in Finland than in most other countries.

Barriers to grain imports stimulated a return to mixed farming, and by Finland's farmers were able to meet roughly 90 percent of the domestic demand for grain.

The disruptions caused by the Winter War and the Continuation War caused further food shortages, especially when Finland ceded territory, including about one-tenth of its farmland, to the Soviet Union.

The experiences of the depression and the war years persuaded the Finns to secure independent food supplies to prevent shortages in future conflicts.

After the war, the first challenge was to resettle displaced farmers. Most refugee farmers were given farms that included some buildings and land that had already been in production, but some had to make do with "cold farms," that is, land not in production that usually had to be cleared or drained before crops could be sown.

The government sponsored large-scale clearing and draining operations that expanded the area suitable for farming. As a result of the resettlement and land-clearing programs, the area under cultivation expanded by about , hectares, reaching about 2.

Finland thus came to farm more land than ever before, an unusual development in a country that was simultaneously experiencing rapid industrial growth.

During this period of expansion, farmers introduced modern production practices. The widespread use of modern inputs—chemical fertilisers and insecticides, agricultural machinery, and improved seed varieties—sharply improved crop yields.

Yet the modernisation process again made farm production dependent on supplies from abroad, this time on imports of petroleum and fertilisers.

By domestic sources of energy covered only about 20 percent of farm needs, while in domestic sources had supplied 70 percent of them.

In the aftermath of the oil price increases of the early s, farmers began to return to local energy sources such as firewood.

The existence of many farms that were too small to allow efficient use of tractors also limited mechanisation.

Another weak point was the existence of many fields with open drainage ditches needing regular maintenance; in the mids, experts estimated that half of the cropland needed improved drainage works.

At that time, about 1 million hectares had underground drainage, and agricultural authorities planned to help install such works on another million hectares.

Despite these shortcomings, Finland's agriculture was efficient and productive—at least when compared with farming in other European countries. Forests play a key role in the country's economy, making it one of the world's leading wood producers and providing raw materials at competitive prices for the crucial wood-processing industries.

As in agriculture, the government has long played a leading role in forestry, regulating tree cutting, sponsoring technical improvements, and establishing long-term plans to ensure that the country's forests continue to supply the wood-processing industries.

Finland's wet climate and rocky soils are ideal for forests. Tree stands do well throughout the country, except in some areas north of the Arctic Circle.

In the forested area totaled about The proportion of forest land varied considerably from region to region. In the central lake plateau and in the eastern and northern provinces, forests covered up to 80 percent of the land area, but in areas with better conditions for agriculture, especially in the southwest, forests accounted for only 50 to 60 percent of the territory.

The main commercial tree species—pine, spruce, and birch—supplied raw material to the sawmill, pulp, and paper industries. The forests also produced sizable aspen and elder crops.

The heavy winter snows and the network of waterways were used to move logs to the mills. Loggers were able to drag cut trees over the winter snow to the roads or water bodies.

In the southwest, the sledding season lasted about days per year; the season was even longer to the north and the east.

The country's network of lakes and rivers facilitated log floating, a cheap and rapid means of transport. Each spring, crews floated the logs downstream to collection points; tugs towed log bundles down rivers and across lakes to processing centers.

The waterway system covered much of the country, and by the s Finland had extended roadways and railroads to areas not served by waterways, effectively opening up all of the country's forest reserves to commercial use.

Forestry and farming were closely linked. During the twentieth century, government land redistribution programmes had made forest ownership widespread, allotting forestland to most farms.

In the s, private farmers controlled 35 percent of the country's forests; other persons held 27 percent; the government, 24 percent; private corporations, 9 percent; and municipalities and other public bodies, 5 percent.

The forestlands owned by farmers and by other people—some , plots—were the best, producing 75 to 80 percent of the wood consumed by industry; the state owned much of the poorer land, especially that in the north.

The ties between forestry and farming were mutually beneficial. Farmers supplemented their incomes with earnings from selling their wood, caring for forests, or logging; forestry made many otherwise marginal farms viable.

At the same time, farming communities maintained roads and other infrastructure in rural areas, and they provided workers for forest operations.

Indeed, without the farming communities in sparsely populated areas, it would have been much more difficult to continue intensive logging operations and reforestation in many prime forest areas.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has carried out forest inventories and drawn up silvicultural plans. According to surveys, between and the late s foresters had cut trees faster than the forests could regenerate them.

Nevertheless, between the early s and , Finland was able to boost the total area of its forests by some 2. Beginning in , the country instituted plans that called for expanding forest cultivation, draining peatland and waterlogged areas, and replacing slow-growing trees with faster-growing varieties.

By the mids, the Finns had drained 5. Thinning increased the share of trees that would produce suitable lumber, while improved tree varieties increased productivity by as much as 30 percent.

Comprehensive silvicultural programmes had made it possible for the Finns simultaneously to increase forest output and to add to the amount and value of the growing stock.

By the mids, Finland's forests produced nearly 70 million cubic meters of new wood each year, considerably more than was being cut.

During the postwar period, the annual cut increased by about percent to about 50 million cubic meters. Wood burning fell to one-fifth the level of the immediate postwar years, freeing up wood supplies for the wood-processing industries, which consumed between 40 million and 45 million cubic meters per year.

Indeed, industry demand was so great that Finland needed to import 5 million to 6 million cubic meters of wood each year. To maintain the country's comparative advantage in forest products, Finnish authorities moved to raise lumber output toward the country's ecological limits.

In the government published the Forest plan, drawn up by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. The plan aimed at increasing forest harvests by about 3 percent per year, while conserving forestland for recreation and other uses.

It also called for enlarging the average size of private forest holdings, increasing the area used for forests, and extending forest cultivation and thinning.

If successful, the plan would make it possible to raise wood deliveries by roughly one-third by the end of the twentieth century.

Finnish officials believed that such growth was necessary if Finland was to maintain its share in world markets for wood and paper products.

Since the s, Finnish industry , which for centuries had relied on the country's vast forests, has become increasingly dominated by electronics and services, as globalization lead to a decline of more traditional industries.

Electrical engineering started in the late 19th century with generators and electric motors built by Gottfried Strömberg, now part of the ABB Group.

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Jyväskylä Finland

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